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Research Sites

The PPBIO Amazonian Research sites can consist of a grid of up to 25 km2 (5x5 km), or modules of 5 linear km (trails of 5km x 2m), or even modules of 5 km2 (5x1 km). Instructions on how to establish PPBio sites can be found in the PPBio manual.

The Grids

The grids are set out along 12 separate trails of 5 km in length, six in a north-south direction and six in an east-west direction. Plots of about 250m in length are set out in a straight line along each one of these trails, each being of variable width, perpendicular to the trails set out in an east-west direction and spaced at an interval of 1km. This system enables each grid to have 30 permanent plots. Topographic measurements are made along these plots every 10 meters, with soil collections, dendrological measurements and marking out of trees taking place in 40 m wide plots. Each site has an additional and variable number of permanent aquatic plots, set out in an upward direction from the point at which the grid trails cross over streams or other bodies of water. The number of aquatic plots depends on the hydrographic qualities of each grid. A stretch of 50 m in length is demarcated across the entire width of the body of water for each lagoon selected as an aquatic sampling plot, where the collections and environmental parameter measurements (physical and chemical) are then made. The site can also incorporate other types of sampling systems that must encompass the entire grid area (25 km2), as well as having a standardized working system that allows comparisons with the other PPBio sites. Aquatic and riparian plots may also occasionally be established outside of the grid. This can occur when it is impossible to establish a grid next to the body of water in question.

The Modules

The PPBio modules are established in areas in which study can take place over the long-term and where rapid inventories can then take place. The main objective of the module is to provide greater spatial coverage and better representation of the different phytophysiognomies or earth usage types within the area studied. The 5 km2 modules have two trails of 5 km, connected by trails of 1 km, forming a rectangle. The linear modules are comprised of 5 km trails of 2 meters in width. Both modules have 5 or 10 linear plots of 250 meters, respectively, spaced 1km apart and laid out in a perpendicular fashion in relation to the trails already established in an east-west direction.

Areas in which established PPBio sites already exist

Caxiuanã National Forest

Amapá National Forest

Gurupi Biological Reserve

Tapajós National Forest


Juruena National Park


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